Flora and fauna of the jungle maintain their ecosystem. The balance is maintained through the right presence of flora and fauna in the jungle. TATR represents Southern Tropical Dry Deciduous Forests in the tiger habitat. TATR has dense woodlands comprising 87% of the protected area. Teak is the prominent species while other trees include Bija, Dhauda, Haldu, Salai, Semal and Tendu. beheda, hirda, karaya gum, mahua Madhuca (Crepe myrtle) and Lannea coramandelica (Wodier Tree). The species composition of different layers of habitat is given as overwood, underwood, shrubs, grasses, climbers, weeds, herbs and epiphytes among others.
Fauna of the jungle has been complimenting the growth of the animals. Apart from 65 keystone species of Bengal Tiger, TATR also boasts of animals like Indian Leopards, Sloth Bear, Gaur, Nilgai, Dhole, Striped Hyena, Small Indian Civet, jungle cats, Sambar, Spotted Deer, Barking Deer, Chital and Chausingha. The Tadoba lake has wide diversity of water birds and raptors. 33 animal species of mammals, 20 species of fishes, 164 species of birds, 30 species of reptiles, 75 types of butterflies and 54 moths and insects among others.